Tools from my personal collection

Panel raising plane by Robert Wooding of London. 1705- 1739

This is a very early example of Wooding's work. The plane is 8 1/2" long, and 2 1/2" wide. the original iron is by William Cosbe of Birmingham

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Moving fillister by Richard Small of London. 1749-1775

This moving fillister has the unusual feature of linum intermittent boxing. This is a feature normally associated with 18th century Birmingham makers. This is the only London made plane I have ever seen with this form of boxing

     -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Very early moulding plane mad of Fruit wood
This plane is most likely made of Plum. I have a few very early looking planes made of this wood, and it seems that early moulders were often made from fruit wood. I have often wondered if this is a table leaf joint plane, but I'm not sure this form of joint was being used on tables at the sort of period this plane was made. It would not surprise me if this was a 17th century example. The wedge shape is particularly intriguing. The heel of the plane is yet again marked with the curious "IC" mark.t for titles, paragraphs & more.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Plough plane by William Wheeler of Thatcham.
<1768-1780.
This plough is another example of how much this extraordinary provincial maker liked to experiment and try and improve on standard designs. firstly we have the raised hump forming a rudimentary type of tote to the rear of the stock. the other unusual feature is the adjustable depth stop. This is made of iron with a wooden core. not only that, the maker has fixed a spring steel mechanism to the inside of the mortice to take up any slack in the adjuster. these are two features I don't recall seeing on planes by any other maker.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Panel Raiser by George Carpenter of London
1724 - 1770.
This small panel raiser bares the very rare incuse mark of George Carpenter. I only know of one other moulding plane with this mark, but would love to know if anyone else has any examples. Carpenter was apprenticed to John Gilgrest in 1717, so he must have had a very long career, or is it that there were two generations?. This plane is in remarkably untouched condition, especially as the small rebate at the edge, that also acts as a depth stop, has not been altered in any way. The original round topped iron is by Robert Moore of Birmingham. Not also that the wedge is round topped. Another reason to believe this is a very early plane.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Plough plane by John Rogers of London 1734-65


The earliest known datable plough planes fitted with a brass screw adjustable form of depth stop are by this maker. John Rogers died in 1765, so this plane can be no later than that. This depth stop is unusual in that it runs the full length of the body with an adjuster at both ends. I know of one other plane with this form of adjuster and that is by another Westminster maker, William Madox. Rogers went on to make ploughs with the conventual form of depth stop, so maybe this was an early experiment that he decided was a bit to complicated and was soon dropped for the common pattern.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Ovolo moulding plane by John Jennion of London
1738- 1778

John Jennion was apprenticed to Ann wooding in 1725. He went on to take over Wooding's business, and property on Queen street. He is possibly best known for his wonderful trade card depicting all sorts of tools. curiously his planes always seem to have a weak makers mark. maybe whoever had the job of stamping them needed a bigger hammer!

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Panel fielding plane by Benjamin Frogatt of Birmingham (1760-90).
Yet again this Birmingham plane shows that classic feature so often seen in 18th century examples from this region, intermittent Lignum boxing. The plane is fairly simple in it's form in having no fence or additional nicker iron. It does however have a simple wooden depth stop that is a friction fit passing through a mortice in the body. The single uncut iron is by John Green of Sheffield. I always like to think that collectors have a soft spot for Mr Frogatt's work on account of his wonderful makers stamp, and this is a fine example of the mark makers art.

Proto Dado plane by William Madox of Westminster, London 1748-75.
This is a very early form of Dado plane that very rarely crops up, and was probably the original pattern. It highly likely that it was very quickly replaced by the common form which prevailed right up to the end of wooden plane making. Nearly all the examples that have been seen are by Madox, so he may have been the inventor of dado plane as we know it, but I have seen one other example by the unknown maker "Hands". The two retaining wedges that hold the two separate nicker irons would originally had finials, but almost inevitably they get knocked off when releasing the irons. I think in every example I have seen the finials have been lost. This may be one reason this form of dado plane was short lived.

Moulding plane by William Loveage, Swallow St Westminster, London. -1735-49
There were Two generations, a father and son, of the Loveage group. I feel that the majority of examples we see were possibly made by the father as they tend to look a bit early in style for the son. This fine example has the flat shoulder style seen in a number of early London makers. The iron is by Aron Hildick, son of Thomas Hildick of Rushsall, Warwickshire. Loveage seems to have had a very successful business judging by the fairly large number of surviving planes, and one wonders if he had anything to do with training the group of Westminster makers who appeared in the middle of the 18th century.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Moulding plane by John Cogdell of London

I have always thought that the middle of the 18th century produced some of the finest plane making we have ever seen, and todays example certainly fits into that category John Cogdell of London worked between 1750- 1773, and served his apprenticeship with his relation (uncle?), William Cogdell. This magnificent complex moulder has the unusual feature of a level shoulder finished off with a small ovolo on the outer edge. This shoulder form was used by a number of other early London makers including William Cogdell, William Loveage, John Jennion, and Ellis Wright.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Moving fillister by Richard Small of Westminster, London. (1749-75)
Small is one of a small group of makers that incorporate a crown into their makers mark. This was to indicate that they worked in and around Westminster. The unusual feature to this plane is the intermittent lignum boxing. This has always puzzled me as this is usually a Birmingham feature. I have noticed a comment in the new edition of British plane makers that may have shed some light on this. Apparently a plane has been recorded by John Briscoe of Birmingham that is also marked Richard Small. This may indicate some form of collaboration between the two makers, and go some way as to explain why lignum has turned up in a London plane

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Unusual moving fillister with bone intermittent boxing.
Unfortunately this fillister bares no makers mark and as such it is difficult to put a precise date to it or location for it's manufacture.
In many ways it is reminiscent of the work of Benjamin Froggatt of Birmingham (1760-1790). I feel that this would be a good indication as to where and when this may have been made. The dropped off shoulder, and extended gouge cut along with the finely shaped shoulder to the iron, suggest to me that it is probably quite early. The quality of workmanship makes me think it was a commercially made plane, but it may be just a well executed user made example. The use of bone for the boxing is new to me, and something I have not come across before.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Rebate plane by Samuel Tompkinson of London <1763-1789.

This is one of the strangest 18th century planes I have come across . Samuel Tomkinson  seems to have specialised in one off designs, but this example is weirder than most!. This rebate plane is 16 1/4" long, making it a bit of a monster, but not only that it has a double iron, and an enclosed tote that makes it look like it should have originated in Naples rather than Clerkenwell! It is not unique as I have seen at least four more examples. I am still unsure as to it's actual purpose, but it has been suggested that it could be a shipwrights rebate plane. The double iron is one of the earliest I have ever seen, and the back iron is marked by John Butterworth of Sheffield.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Moulding plane by John Davenport of London 1704-1735.

This is a very early moulding plane by John Davenport of London. This plane was found with a group of other early planes, in an old wheelwrights workshop near Sheffield. It measures 10 5/8 inches long. I find it amazing that a plane that is probably over 300 years old, with such a delicate wedge, has survived intact !. The iron is marked, but alas, I have never been able to decipher the makers name. John Davenport was William Reynolds first Apprentice, being bound in 1693

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sash fillister by John Cox of Birmingham 1770-1808

 

 This plane has a couple of interesting features. Firstly it still retains it's original friction fit stems. the usual wedges have never been added at a later date. The wooden depth stop is also of an unusual form. As per usual with Mr Cox, he has insisted in putting his mark upside down!

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Skewed fore plane by John Kendal of Bristol <1786-1813

This is a form of plane you won't see me posting many of. Bench planes from the 18th century are almost certainly the hardest form of wooden plane from this era to find, which is slightly odd in some ways as they were something every woodworker would have possessed. The simple fact of the matter is that they were used on a daily basis and simply wore out. Perhaps the reason this example survived is that it's not quite your conventional fore plane. The single iron, By Hanna Green of Sheffield, is skewed, but does not protrude to the edge so it is not for any form of rebate work. It is also quite small being about 13" long, and not very wide. Just a quick note, the end profile picture is deceiving, the sole is not curved in any way.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Forkstaff plane by John Briscoe of Birmingham 1785-88.


I used to find it curious as to the fairly large number of surviving 18th century forkstaff planes, but on reflection I have taken in to consideration the fact that England was still predominantly Agricultural in it's make up at this period. The forkstaff plane could be used to round any small section of timber, but I suspect a lot of its use was the manufacture of various tool handles, particularly agricultural implements, and possibly labourers picks and shovels (their was a huge program of canal building at this time). This example by John Briscoe has some interesting features. At first glance you would take it that this plane had a single uncut iron, but on closer inspection you would find that the back iron has been reduced at the edges, and the underside of the wedge relieved to accommodate it. As far as I am aware this is the only plane where I have seen this feature The iron is marked "Bolsover" which was the trade mark of Joseph Mitchell of Sheffield (1787-1810). The sole of the plane is curved, based on a 2" diameter circle, and the plane has another feature I have not seen before herein that this size has been marked out on the side of the stock. Some forkstaffs were made by altering a standard smoother, but this always leaves a wide mouth. You can always tell an original example by the curved ware in the front of the throat of the plane.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

This is a large handled panel raising plane by Thomas and William Nelson of York (1773-1783). For a plane that is possibly 250 years old, this example is in remarkably good condition, and may have never been used as the fence has never been relieved to allow the iron to protrude from the sole.
Apart from the worm tracks in the wooden depth stop it is almost in mint condition. The uncut round topped iron is beautifully stamped with the makers mark of John Wild of Church Lane, Sheffield.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

This is a cornice plane by Thomas Phillipson OF London (1740-1775. This beast of a plane is 5 1/4"wide, and 13 5/8" long. English cornice, or crown moulders are rare, and It has been suggested that the few remaining examples that have come to light were possibly made for export to the North American colonies where they were used quite extensively.
The plane still sports an original rope which would have been used by a second operator to assist in the cutting of the cornice.
The lovely early tote is well offset, and despite of some damage, and old woodworm, it still functions extremely well.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

This beautiful moulding plane has some features that raise it up above your everyday example. Firstly it has a marked iron by a very rare early maker. We have very little information about Frances Inman of Birmingham, but due to some excellent research by Don and Ann Wing, we now know he is one of the earliest recorded edge tool makers, and was working in the latter part of the 17th century. Rather than the beech we are used to seeing, this plane is made from holly. It is not unique as I do have at least two other early looking planes made from this wood. Including this example. None of the planes have a recognisable makers mark, and it is a possibility they were all made before commercial plane making became widespread. The plane has a complex profile with no spring, and is often described as a picture frame mould. I have never been comfortable with this designation, and I feel it more likely they were for forming bolection moulds for doors, and other paneling. Intricate moulds like these can be seen on many early period properties, whereas the picture frames of this period tend to be of a much bolder section, and often intricately carved.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Moulding plane by Benjamin Bown of Winchester.
<1781-1817.
One wonders where Mr Bown learnt his trade as his work is of a very high order, but his style is more reminiscent of a much earlier period of plane making. His execution of his chamfers and gouge cuts are second to none. having said that, the only weak link in his style is his wedges which don't in my opinion have the same finesse as the rest of the overall design.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------

Dado plane by John Green of York. 1765-1799
This is possibly an early example by this maker judging by the style of the wedges, and the early form of makers mark. What makes this plane stand out as being different from the norm is the depth stop. this is dovetailed into the side of the body as apposed to being in a mortice within the plane stock. Not only that, it is also made of boxwood. John Green was obviously experimenting at this time with his Dado design, as he also made the conventual pattern at the same period as can be seen in the last photo. This second plane also has the early wedge pattern, and same stamp, so would presumably be from the same period.

---------------------------------------------------------------------

Plough planes by Robert Wooding, and Thomas Phillipson

These two planes have been on the tool collecting circuit for a long while, and they were both illustrated in the 1978 second edition of British plane makers (page 66). They also have their original auction labels attached to them when they were sold in America. These labels give us a good insight into the fact that they had been in the US for a very long while, possibly most of there working life. The fence on the wooding plow has a feature I don't recall ever seeing on any plough before in that the return moulding to the front edge is repeated at the rear end as well. Another feature worth noting on both ploughs is what is often described as inside and outside wedge stems. This is a detail sometimes seen on very early ploughs.

------------------------------------------------------------

Complex moulding plane by John Rogers of Westminster, London (1734-65)
This beautiful moulding plane was given to me a number of years ago by Bill and Sarah Carter . Rogers is another of the Westminster plane makers who we know very little about. We still have no idea who trained him, and he does not appear to have trained any known plane makers. We do know from the large number of surviving examples of his work that he was a very accomplished and prolific maker. The quality and condition of this plane is exceptional, and it still cuts as well today as it did when it started it's working life over 260 years ago. And what a makers mark. They don't come much better than this!

----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Plough plane by William Wheeler of Thatcham <1746-1778.

This is a fine example by this provincial maker, and displays some interesting features. As far as I know this is the only plane from the 18th century that has a makers mark on it's fittings. the depth stop adjuster has the makers mark of John Ryley of Birmingham. Ryley is better known for his iron bit stocks made for wooden braces, and this is the same mark that appears on the bit stocks. The depth stock shoe is also unusual as it is made entirely of iron rather than a brass post with added iron shoe. It has been made in two pieces, and if you look closely you can see how it has been dovetailed together. Another nice feature that is often seen on London planes of this period, notably Gabriel, is the double gouge cut to the chamfer termination. There are some curious marks to the toe end of the plane that look like bruising from some form of cross hatched tool or clamp. As a stand alone feature this would not be that interesting, but I do have a sash fillister by the same maker with the same marks. could this be an indication of some form of holding device the maker used while working on the stock?

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 Panel raiser by Moody of Worcester.

Although we have no definite documentation to prove it, it is now generally thought that panes marked with the Worcester stamp are by Joseph Moody who was listed as a Joiner. His son, Thomas Moody was baptised in 1718. Thomas was listed as a plane maker working from 1740- 1776. The planes with the Worcester mark appear to be to early in style and appearance to have been made by Thomas.
Nearly all the early panel raisers I have seen that date before about 1740 tend to be fairly uniform in size, but this plane is a bit of a monster. The iron is nearly 2 3/4" wide. The maker of this beautiful iron is Edward Dingley, another clue indicating that this plane may have been made prior to around 1730. When The late Don wing saw this plane he remarked that it was almost certainly the earliest plane to have been found with intermittent lignum boxing. Another nice feature is the stopped chamfer ether side of the wooden depth stop. The round topped wedge is also indicative of an early date. It is also worth noting that this plane has never had any form of fence to help guide it indicating that some form of temporary fence must have been attached to the workpiece when using it.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------

If this was a chart count down, this moulding plane would definitely feature in my all time top 10. At 10 1/2" long, and with no spring to the moulding, I would consider this to be one of the oldest planes in my collection. We know from Thomas Granfords early advertisement where he states "he would now be marking his planes with his full name as apposed to just "TG", that it is probable that early makers only used their initials to mark there wares. Working on that assumption it is possible that the maker of this plane could have been "RD". The only candidate that fits the bill at the moment is Richard Draper of London. 1702-1717. although he is listed in the blacksmiths company, two of his apprentices became plane makers, Richard Burman, and Richard Mealing. Notable features of this plane are the still visible layout lines for the moulding, and the compass point, and scribed circle on the wedge layout.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Plough plane by John Cogdell of London
(1750-1773)
Judging from it's appearance this is possibly an early effort of John's. It has an archaic appearance that would fit well with a plane closer to the first two decades of the 18th century, rather than 1750. Then again, this is one of the features of 18th century ploughs I love. Very rarely will you find two identical ploughs, even from the same maker. One wonders if the workshop craftsmen were given more leeway when making ploughs and were allowed to put their own personal stamp to the design.

--------------------------------------------------------------

Moulding plane by "I" Johnson, Warwick.
We have known about this maker for some time now, but unfortunately as yet we have not been able to find Mr Johnson in any records. From the style of the plane, and the presence of an original iron by Edward Dingley, I think it would be safe to assume this plane was made some time prior to 1730. The plane itself is 10 3/8" long with broad flat chamfers, and a Phillipson style shoulder termination. I have only just realised that the plane has been mentioned in the latest 4th edition of British plane makers, and is also illustrated (page391). Something worth noting on this plane is a feature often seen in very early English planes. The beech wood has very wide growth rings. One can only presume that at some time approximately one hundred years prior to this period of making we must have had a period of fine warm weather for the trees to have grown at this rate.

---------------------------------------------------------

Panel raising plane by Samuel Holbeck of London.
(<1730-1770>)
Samuel Holbeck's career spans a long period, and I can't but help feel there must have been at least two generations of this family working. My own assumption is that this later looking mark probably belonged to a second generation. I would think this plane dates to around 1750ish. The plane has an iron by Samson Freeth

--------------------------------------------------------------------------

Moulding plane by John Davenport, London.
1704- 1735
This is a very battered old boy, but due to it's extreme rarity I think we can forgive it, and lets face it, it has been kicking around for about 300 years! As always, It is nice to see the original set out lines on the toe, and heel.
This is a good example of one of Mr Davenport's curious features. Both the moulding planes I have in the collection by this maker have wedges that have a decided lean to the wedge. In both cases it throws the cutting end of the iron closer to the offside edge. This plane is a bit of a monster and is possibly the longest moulder by a commercial maker that I have ever seen. It is 10 7/8" long

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Panel raising plane by W. Taylor ?
This large panel raising plane is something of a mystery. This plane maker was briefly listed in the Second edition of British plane makers, but had disappeared by the time the 3rd edition came out. I have seen sufficient planes with this distinctive mark to feel he is a maker rather than an owner, but have no idea as to his dates or location. The double gouge cut to the chamfer termination would perhaps indicate a London, or south west location. I particularly like the heart stop.The plane is in almost mint condition, and has an iron marked Green, and a back iron marked with the yet as unrecorded makers mark of P Bishop. The other curious feature of this plane is that it has no skew to the blade, which for a panel raiser is most unusual, and I would imagine it would be difficult to use across the grain especially as their is no secondary scribing iron. This maybe the reason it appears to have had such little use!

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Pair of moulding planes By H Freeman.
A good number of planes have turned up over the years with this curious mark, but we have not been able to as yet find a date or location for this maker. I have found something that may shed some light on this, and with the recent information now in the 4th edition of British plane makers, I am beginning to think this could be our man. The tops of these planes are rounded, and very much in the style of Robert Bloxham of Banbury, and we now know that Thomas Morse of Stratford upon Avon took on the stock of Bloxham in 1784. Morse worked in a property known as the Saracens head, and some research has led to me to this entry- "
Assignment by way of mortgage from Thomas Morse of Stratford-upon-Avon, joiner, to Charles Henry Hunt of Stratford-upon-Avon, gent., of a lease, dated 4 May 1770, from the Mayor and Corporation to the said Thomas Morse of a messuage in Sheep Street, late in the tenure of HENRY FREEMAN and then known as the Saracens Head,"
I also have a moulder Marked "D Hunt, Stratford upon Avon". Maybe this is another link?

----------------------------------------------------------------------------


Panel raiser by John Green of York -1765-99.
This plane by John Green displays one of his earlier marks. The scalloped edge is of a heavier pattern compared to his later, much more common mark. The depth stop on this plane seems huge compared to later examples by this maker. The single uncut iron is by Samuel Newbould of Sheffield. (-1787-)

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Moving fillister by William Tracey of Winchester (-1774-1820)
Although this is a provincial made plane, William Tracey was trained in London. He was apprenticed to William Madox in 1759. The plane itself is missing a dovetailed nicker iron to the front.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Plough plane by Thomas Moody of Birmingham.
1740-1770
This was the first 18th century plane I ever purchased. It was my first ever Ebay buy and cost me the princely sum of £3.99!
The plane itself has some interesting features. The most obvious is that the wooden depth stop is pierced through its body by the front arm, and the wedge stem has been placed on top of the stem. The wedge not only holds the arm firm, but also the depth stop. Other features that tend to be unique to Birmingham ploughs is the round penny type brass washers to the top of the stem pivots. these are usually diamond shaped. The single iron skate is fixed with hand cut screws rather than the normal rivets. This is a rare 18th century feature rarely seen, but has cropped up on one or two Birmingham ploughs. The mould where the body meets the fence is nearly always a thumb mould, but Birmingham makers sometimes favoured an ogee.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Complex moulding plane by John Barnes of Pershore.
<1791-1828
John Barnes is listed as a Worcester maker, but My research has found out that he started his business in the nearby village of Pershore. He then later moved to Worcester where the business was continued by his son, James. This plane has the unusual feature of solid lignum boxing. It also has some interesting owners stamps. Also worth noting is the double "heart" gouge cuts to the chamfer termination. This is a feature we usually associate with late 18th century London makers. Maybe the young Pershore maker learned his craft there?

----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Plough plane by George Mutter of Westminster, London.
1766- 1793
This plough is a good example of a later 18th century plough plane. There are no great stand out features to it, but it is a well balanced and finely made plane. The condition and patina are particularly appealing.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Moving Fillister by John Cogdell of London
1750-1773
John Cogdell was apprenticed to William Cogdell in 1741 (possibly his uncle). He then went on to be a plane maker in his own right, and had a very successful career judging by the large number of surviving planes by this maker. This moving fillister is of a fairly standard design for this period, with the only unusual feature being the chamfered edge to the bottom fence.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Dado plane by Thomas Cauldwell of Birmingham 1791-1821
This is only a personal observation, but from my own experience dado planes can be some of the most tricky planes to re furbish, and put back into use. The plane by the very nature of it's purpose has to be perfectly straight with no warp or twist to the body. Due to it's design, the main stock is cut through with a large aperture around the mouth area , and obviously the mouth is open on both sides. This makes this form of plane particularly vulnerable to warpage or twist. It is also important that the forward scribing iron is in good condition and well matched to the width of the main cutter. Having said all of that, when you can find a good example with out any major defects, they are supreme tools to use, and of great use to anyone making cabinet furniture by hand. A lot of planes are sometimes difficult to tie down to a particular branch of woodwork, but the Dado plane could perhaps be said to be a "pure cabinet makers plane" This example has quite an unusual form of wooden depth stop, as most examples seen ether have a brass adjustable, or wooden friction fit stop morticed through the body. It is interesting to note that late 18th century makers from Birmingham have a propensity to experimenting with design outside of what would possibly seem the norm.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Moulding plane by Francis Purdew?
This early 10 1/2" moulding plane is a bit of a mystery, and a conundrum. The plane was purchased at auction, and was once part of the late David Russell collection. The plane has the makers mark of Robert Wooding of London (1705-1739), but when I first saw the plane at the auction viewing, I immediately thought it was more likely to be the work of Francis Purdew (1704 -), and on close inspection I realised that Purdew's distinctive oval mark could just be made out on the side of the plane. The plane also has it's original iron by Thomas Hildik of Rushsall, Warwickshire. These irons often crop up in planes by Purdew, and Wooding. It has been suggested in the past that there may have been some collaboration between these two makers, so my initial thought was that perhaps the plane had been made in Purdew's workshop, and then retailed by Wooding. The problem with this hypothesis is that this could be an example of a plane that as we now know, some unscrupulous dealer who didn't spot the Purdew mark, may have took the plane to be a nice early unmarked example and added the Wooding mark, so, at the time, greatly increasing it's value. This is one of the reasons I find this practice so abhorrent as If this is a genuine double marked plane it would be of great historical interest in relation to the beginnings of plane making, but because of this unscrupulous practice we may never know the real truth of the matter.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Plough plane by Middleton and Dyson of York
<1791-1798.
Although this plane dates to the last decade of the 18th century, It has an archaic look to it that is more reminiscent of a plane from the first half of the century. The single piece iron skate and wooden depth stop seem primitive, but I suspect it is highly likely that makers continued to offer cheaper alternatives, in fact, plough planes with wooden depth stops. and no cap ends to the stems were still available from some manufacturers right up until the 20th century.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sash fillister by George Stothert, Bath.
1784-1818
This is pattern of sash fillister that seems to have come about in the last decade of the 18th century. The main feature is the large cut out escapement in the form of a cupids bow. What was the reasoning for this curious design is a bit of a mystery. It may have been to give the operator a better view of what was going on at the point of action, or was it to ease the passage of the shavings?. I think I will have to try and restore one to working condition, and compare it to some conventual fillisters to get a true answer.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Pair of Grooving planes by William Squire of Soho, London.
<1754-1760>
These two planes turned up with a number of other 18th century moulders, and my first thought was that they were from two sets of tonged and grooving planes, but if that was the case where were the tonging planes? They are also close to being identical, but one is slightly more offset than the other. Over the years, the other thing I have noticed is that 18th century examples of tonged and grooving planes are virtually non existent. One wonders if these planes were made for another purpose entirely. maybe drawer bottom grooves? Whatever they are of exceptional quality, as are most of this makers products. William Squire is perhaps better known for his beautiful saws, but he was no slouch when it came to plane making.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Early user made moving Fillister.
This is one of those quirky user made planes that I just fell in love with. Mr Tokelove must have seen a similar plane somewhere and decided to have a go at making his own. He even had a go at a bit of intermittent boxing, but rather than use the normal lignum, he has tried a combination of ebony and boxwood. The main wedge, and wooden depth stop iare verging on the surreal.
The surname Tokelove was unusual enough to do a bit of research and as it happens it was only really found in a small area of North Norfolk. There were a family of Wheelwrights, and joiners working in a cluster of villages in this area at around the late 18th and early 19th century, and as the plane was bought from a seller from this area I think it safe to assume it was made by one of this group of craftsmen.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------